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Getting started with Xorn

1. First, make sure that you have the latest version of gEDA/gaf installed (version 1.10.0 or later). When invoking the Python interpreter directly from a non-standard prefix, you have to add the correct PYTHONPATH (see below): either the subdirectory built-packages in the build tree, or the appropriate site-packages directory in the installation.

2. (no longer applicable)

Xorn as a command-line utility

3a. Invoke the “xorn” executable with the option “--help” to see a list of subcommands:

  xorn/src/command/xorn --help

(or “src/command/xorn --help” if you downloaded the Xorn tarball, or just “xorn --help” if you installed Xorn to your PATH)

3b. Run the subcommand “xorn netlist” with the options “--help” and “--list-backends” to print a list of options and available backends.

  xorn/src/command/xorn netlist --help
  xorn/src/command/xorn netlist --list-backends

3c. Process a schematic with “xorn netlist” (using the “PCB” backend as an example):

  xorn/src/command/xorn netlist \
    --symbol-library-search=/usr/share/gEDA/sym \
    -g PCB some-schematic.sch

Interacting with Xorn in a C program

4. Write a C program using libxornstorage and link it against the library:

  $ cat > example.c
  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <stdlib.h>
  #include <string.h>
  #include <xornstorage.h>
  int main()
      xorn_revision_t rev;
      xorn_object_t net_ob;
      struct xornsch_net net_data;
      xorn_object_t *objects;
      size_t count;
      rev = xorn_new_revision(NULL);
      memset(&net_data, 0, sizeof net_data);
      net_data.pos.x = 0;
      net_data.pos.y = 200;
      net_data.size.x = 100;
      net_data.size.y = 0;
      net_data.color = 4;
      net_ob = xornsch_add_net(rev, &net_data);
      xorn_get_objects(rev, &objects, &count);
      printf("%d object(s) found\n", count);
      return 0;
  $ gcc -I xorn/include -c example.c
  $ ./libtool --mode=link gcc -o example \
      example.o xorn/src/storage/
  $ ./example
  1 object(s)

If you are using a separate build directory, replace “-I xorn/include” with the path to the subdirectory “xorn/include” in the source directory.

For more information, see the libxornstorage API documentation (overview).

Using Xorn as a library

5. Run the Python 2.7 interpreter with the subdirectory “xorn/built-packages” added to the environment variable “PYTHONPATH”.

  $ PYTHONPATH=xorn/built-packages python2.7
  Python 2.7.9 (default, Mar  1 2015, 18:22:53)
  [GCC 4.9.2] on linux2
  Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.

Import the module “” and experiment a bit with the API. Here is how to perform the operations equivalent to the C program above:

  >>> import
  >>> rev =
  >>> net_data =
          x = 0, y = 200, width = 100, height = 0, color = 4)
  >>> net_ob = rev.add_object(net_data)
  >>> rev.finalize()
  >>> rev.get_objects()
  [< object at ...>]

Import the module “” and load a schematic or symbol file:

  >>> import
  >>> rev =
  >>> for ob in rev.toplevel_objects():
  ...     data =
  ...     if isinstance(data,
  ...         print data.text

For more information, see the API documentation of and xorn.geda.

6. Write and execute a Python program which uses the xorn package:

  $ cat >
  #!/usr/bin/env python2
  import sys
  rev =[1])
  for ob in rev.toplevel_objects():
      data =
      if isinstance(data,
          print data.text
  $ chmod +x
  $ PYTHONPATH=xorn/built-packages ./ \

Writing custom netlist backends

7. Invoke “xorn netlist” on your schematic as above, but instead of specifying a netlist backend, use the option “-i”:

  $ xorn/src/command/xorn netlist \
      --symbol-library-search=/usr/share/gEDA/sym \
      -i some-schematic.sch
  Python 2.7.9 (default, Mar  1 2015, 18:22:53)
  [GCC 4.9.2] on linux2
  Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.

This option causes “xorn netlist” to enter interactive mode. You are now in an interactive Python interpreter session, just like above, but have the additional global variable “netlist” available which contains the netlist's contents.

  >>> netlist
  <xorn.geda.netlist.netlist.Netlist instance at ...>
  >>> netlist.nets
  [< instance at ...>, ...]
  >>> [ for net in netlist.nets]
  [..., 'GND', ...]
  >>> netlist.nets_by_name['GND']
  < instance at ...>
  >>> netlist.nets_by_name['GND'].name
  >>> netlist.nets_by_name['GND'].connections
  [<xorn.geda.netlist.package.PackagePin instance at ...>, ...]
  >>> netlist.nets_by_name['GND'].connections[0].package
  <xorn.geda.netlist.package.Package instance at ...>
  >>> netlist.nets_by_name['GND'].connections[0].package.refdes
  >>> netlist.nets_by_name['GND'].connections[0].number
  >>> netlist.packages
  [<xorn.geda.netlist.package.Package instance at ...>]
  >>> netlist.packages_by_refdes
  {..., 'U100': <xorn.geda.netlist.package.Package instance at ...>, ...}
  >>> netlist.packages_by_refdes['U100'].get_attribute('device')
  >>> netlist.packages_by_refdes['U100'].pins
  [<xorn.geda.netlist.package.PackagePin instance at ...>, ...]
  >>> netlist.packages_by_refdes['U100'].pins_by_number
  {..., '7': <xorn.geda.netlist.package.PackagePin instance at ...>, ...}
  >>> netlist.packages_by_refdes['U100'].pins_by_number['7'].net
  < instance at ...>
  >>> netlist.packages_by_refdes['U100'].pins_by_number['7']

8. Write a Python module whose name starts with “gnet_” and which contains a function “run(f, netlist)”. Use this module as a netlist backend:

  $ cat >
  def run(f, netlist):
      f.write("%d packages found\n" % len(netlist.packages))
      f.write("%d nets found\n" % len(netlist.nets))
  $ xorn/src/command/xorn netlist \
      --symbol-library-search=/usr/share/gEDA/sym \
      -L . -g count some-schematic.sch
  1 packages found
  4 nets found
geda/xorn_getting_started.txt · Last modified: 2020/12/16 08:42 by rlutz